Testing Ansible Provision­ing Locally

Whenever I need to provision servers I reach for bash scripts or use Ansible to do the tedious work of installing packages and configuring services for me. In contrast to other provisioning tools both Ansible and bash have no built-in way to test that the scripts you’re writing actually do what you want them to do. Spinning up a real server in order to test your scripts, can either become expensive or simply annoying. Time to fix that.

With the help two little tools, we can make local testing of provisioning scripts faster and more pleasant. It’s my go to way these days - there might be more sophisticated approaches out there but this is what works well for me (I’m not doing any rocket science anyways).

We’re going to use Vagrant to spin up a local VM, provision that VM with Ansible and then use Serverspec to verify that everything worked as intended.

Example Code Repository

You can find a simple example of everything I describe here in my example repository on GitHub. Check it out, fork it and use it as a foundation for your next project.

Vagrant Setup

After you’ve installed Vagrant on your machine you’re ready to spin up a virtual machine on your local computer.

A Vagrantfile in our project root will configure Vagrant. With this file you declare the operating system image Vagrant should use for the VM. You can also configure networking and provide additional steps to provision the VM.

The following Vagrantfile will make Vagrant spin up an Ubuntu machine and run Ansible during Vagrant’s provisioning step. Ansible will run on the VM, not on the host, as we’re using ansible_local, not ansible as our provisioner. After running Ansible, Vagrant will then use Serverspec to run our tests.

Vagrant.configure(2) do |config|
  config.vm.box = "ubuntu/xenial64"

  config.vm.provision "ansible_local" do |ansible|
    ansible.limit = 'all'
    ansible.inventory_path = 'hosts'
    ansible.playbook = 'local.yml'

  config.vm.provision :serverspec do |spec|
    spec.pattern = 'test/*_spec.rb' # pattern for test files

Before we can use this configuration, we need to install the vagrant-serverspec plugin:

vagrant plugin install vagrant-serverspec

Ansible Configuration

I like to use Ansible playbooks and roles, even if what I’m doing is quite small. In the example repository I’ve added a simple role that installs nginx on our virtual machine. This can be a good starting point for you to go crazy and add more steps to your roles, more roles and do whatever you have to do in order to provision your server.


Ansible uses a so-called inventory to find out which hosts to provision. For testing, we declare localhost (the [local] block). We also declare all our other remote servers that we want to provision in this file (similar to the [some-other-server block).

[local] ansible_python_interpreter=/usr/bin/python3

<some_remote_ip> ansible_python_interpreter=/usr/bin/python3


Playbooks are a way to tell Ansible what roles to apply to which hosts and how to connect to these hosts. For our local testing, we have a special playbook called local.yml. In our Vagrantfile we tell the Ansible provisioner to use this file as the playbook that should be executed for provisioning the VM.

- hosts: local
  connection: local
  become: yes
  become_user: root
    - nginx

As we’ve configured ansible_local as the provisioner for Vagrant, we tell our playbook to use a local connection to the host declared with the name local in the Inventory (the hosts file). Remember, Ansible is executed on the VM directly, not on the host, that’s why we use a local connection instead of ssh here. Also, we define that our playbook should execute the nginx role only.

Besides the local.yml playbook, we can have multiple other playbooks that we can then use to tell Ansible how to provision our real servers and what roles to apply. I’ve added an example for remote server provisioning in the example repository.

Serverspec Tests

Vagrant and Ansible are set up and we have a simple Ansible role in place. It’s time to look at our Serverspec tests in the test directory.

Change the tests according to your needs and provisioning steps. Make sure that all your test files end with the _spec.rb pattern so that our Vagrant provisioner can find them.

This is what a simple test will look like:

require_relative 'spec_helper'

describe service('nginx') do
  it { should be_running }

describe port(80) do
  it { should be_listening }

The Serverspec documentation gives you an overview over a lot of helpful resource types you can use for your tests.


With this in place, you can go ahead, write your Ansible roles and test them properly with Serverspec.

To test your provisioning scripts locally, simply use vagrant up or vagrant provision to spin up and provision your Vagrant VM. After a short while you’ll see the output of both, Ansible and Serverspec in your terminal and you’ll know if everything worked as intended or if there’s a problem with your ansible scripts:

PLAY [local] *******************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] *********************************************************
ok: []
TASK [nginx : Install packages] ************************************************
changed: [] => (item=[u'nginx'])
TASK [nginx : Restart nginx] ***************************************************
changed: []
PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************                  : ok=3    changed=2    unreachable=0    failed=0
==> default: Running provisioner: serverspec...
Finished in 0.53478 seconds (files took 0.08154 seconds to load)
2 examples, 0 failures

Once you’re sure that your provisioning scripts work correctly, you can provision your remote servers by calling Ansible with a different playbook:

ansible-playbook remote.yml -u root -i hosts

That’s all there is. Go ahead, provision and test all you can!